Local Produce for School Lunch Program: Distribution

This post is the second in our series of articles about sourcing local produce for school lunch programs.


Determining how to get locally farmed products to the school is often the biggest challenge faced by foodservice staff when instituting a farm to school program.

The most frequent issue cited by school foodservice staff when developing a farm to school program is difficulty transporting locally farmed products to the school. A number of factors should be considered when determining the most effective distribution method for your district, such as the district size, whether the district has centralized versus satellite kitchens, the schools’ storage capacities, and whether farm cooperatives exist in the area. Four distribution methods are outlined below.

Buy directly from individual farmers. Some school foodservice directors have built relationships with individual farmers and buy directly from them.

No middleman so challenges can be overcome quickly and easily
Foodservice staff learns what the farmer grows and can even ask for specific items to be planted

Individual farmers mean more paperwork, more phone calls, more coordination, more deliveries

Buy from a farmer cooperative. A cooperative consolidates multiple farmers’ products and distributes them together.

Reduces administration, paperwork, number of deliveries

May not be an option for all regions
Decreases personal contact with individual farmers

Buy from farmers’ markets. This model is similar to buying directly from farmers, but orders are given to the farmers a few days prior to the farmers’ market and are picked up by the foodservice staff on the day of the farmers’ market.

Ability to inspect before accepting the product
Gives an opportunity to see other growers and their offerings at the market
Can reduce costs since the farmer was already coming to the market

More time consuming since product must be picked up
Works only in regions where the school year and farmers’ markets coincide
Feasible only if the district has a truck and driver available

Order locally grown food through a traditional wholesaler. For this method, foodservice staff purchases from a distributor that offers at least some local products.

Often allows foodservice staff to maintain existing purchasing relationships
Reduces administration and time required to procure local product

No communication with farmers
Unable to guarantee product is locally sourced (can be mitigated by knowing the availability and seasonality of local produce and requesting access to buying records from the broker)

Because of the differences among school districts, there is not a one-size-fits-all or recommended distribution method. Each district, after taking an inventory of their resources and unique circumstances, can choose the distribution method that best fits their situation. For more extensive information on distribution models, see the USDA’s publication Eat Smart – Farm Fresh! A Guide to Buying and Serving Locally-Grown Produce in School Meals.


Local Produce for School Lunch Program: An Introduction

This post serves as an introduction to our series of articles about sourcing local produce for school lunch programs. 

Your school system already utilizes sustainable practices when constructing and operating new schools. As a foodservice director you may have considered additional steps you can take to support the sustainability effort. Why not adopt a program such as buying local produce for your school lunch program (i.e., farm to school program)? A successful farm to school program partners schools with local farms and results in more nutritious and better tasting menu offerings, which in turn can increase school meal participation rates and contribute to the overall health of your students. In addition, purchasing directly from nearby farms supports the local economy and provides health and nutrition educational opportunities for students. All of these benefits sound great, but where should you start and what hurdles might you encounter?

Local Produce Image

Many resources are available to assist school foodservice directors with sourcing local produce for their lunch program.

The Farm-to-School Program is a valuable national network that connects schools with local farms. Farm-to-School provides myriad resources to help school foodservice directors get started. The Farm-to-School website provides information about building relationships with local growers, case studies from school systems that have already implemented farm to school programs, and tools for evaluating the program’s success.

I highly recommend reading USDA Farm to School Team 2010 Summary Report. This report summarizes the findings from fifteen school districts across the country that have already implemented a successful program – describing challenges encountered, along with real-world solutions. You may be interested to learn how various school districts overcame funding shortfalls, labor challenges, and facility modifications that are required to implement a farm to school program. The amount of valuable information and the number of ideas and solutions available to anyone interested in starting a farm to school program are incredible. Consider investing time researching the opportunity and take advantage of the resources that are available to you through the Farm-to-School program.

The potential positive impact of a farm to school program for your school system is enormous. Good luck, and stay tuned for additional posts about this topic!


Top 10 Trends in K-12 School Foodservice

1. Greater Use of Energy Efficient Equipment

Almost all school projects are seeking LEED certification these days. The use of energy efficient equipment and variable demand exhaust systems are part of every school project. An increased number of Energy Star rated appliances has helped schools reduce their utility consumption. This common sense trend toward using energy efficient equipment will continue far into the future.

Energy saving exhaust systems and an emphasis on reducing water and waste are common elements of most K-12 design projects.

2. Water Use Reduction

Low-flow faucets and warewashing equipment with very low water requirements are becoming the standard in every school kitchen. The days of operating a warewasher that uses 400 gallons of water per hour are over.

3. Waste Reduction through Recycling and Composting

Many school systems are abandoning the use of garbage disposers and are instead pursuing composting programs. Tray return stations are quickly becoming recycling stations where students separate the waste from the recyclable materials.

4. More Locally-Grown Produce

Reducing the carbon footprint of schools is gaining popularity. Purchasing produce from local farmers rather than from across the country is a real trend. Today’s kitchen designs have to account for the logistics of fresh produce preparation as compared with opening ready-to-serve produce.

5. Greater Emphasis on Scratch Cooking

Many school systems are returning to scratch cooking, particularly with baked products. The perception that scratch cooking produces fresher, healthier food and happier students is driving this trend.

6. Greater Variety in Menu

Students are willing to experiment with new foods, especially in high school. The diversity of student populations is also driving a need for more variety in menus.

7. Non-Institutional Serving Areas

Students have become used to dining and socializing in food courts and want to have the same kind of atmosphere at school. They don’t want to feel like they are in an institutional setting. Participation rates at schools that have a commercial feel are significantly higher than rates at schools utilizing the traditional linear serving line.


Many school systems are returning to scratch cooking for fresher, healthier food and happier students.

8. Emphasis on Food Safety

National news coverage of food-borne illness outbreaks has made school administrators more aware of the need for food safety.

9. Greater Awareness of Food Allergies/Sensitivities and Preferences

Because the number of U.S. children with food allergies has increased significantly in the last ten years some school systems have incorporated nut-free or gluten-free options. And to accommodate food preferences some schools have expanded the menu to include items such as vegan choices.

10. Increased Design Flexibility

Unlike commercial operators, school systems plan to use foodservice equipment for many years rather than planning for replacement five to seven years in the future. As a result the equipment chosen for a school kitchen must be flexible enough to serve the program through a wide variety of menu trends that will occur over a 20 or 30 year time horizon.